Re-Enchanting our organisations: Making work meaningful

Meet Frank Martela, a refreshingly unconventional Finnish philosopher on a stimulating quest to unlock the secrets of a meaningful life. Frank melds Dewey's pragmatism, the insights of Self-Determination Theory, and the moral compass of Virtue Ethics to develop a journey for transforming individuals and organizations. Together, we unravel the challenges of his theoretical project and dive into its practical implications - from 'caring connections' at work and the hurdles of self-management to the benefits of systems intelligence. Join the conversation if you still wonder whether people in the Nordics are happier because of saunas and heavy metal, and, of course, if you are keen to pursue a more meaningful life at work.

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BEHIND the interview

Why is the interview important? Who are we talking to?



We approached Frank for several reasons. Firstly, we wanted to get clearer about a possible distinction between "goodness" and "meaning", as well as between normative ethics and mostly descriptive psychology. Helpfully, Frank has dedicated decades of his researcher life to questions about meaning, meaningfulness, significance and self-realization at work or in life. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether and how virtue ethics could benefit from integration with (positive) psychology, as a normative foundation for our theory. Frank has developed multiple iterations of a practical framework that seemed very interesting. This also links to our interview with Blaine Fowers which seeks to explain "telos" in anthropological and evolutionary terms. Finally, we wanted to again explore (the limitations) of pragmatism in the context of morality. Here, we also connect with our interview with Ed Freeman.


  • What is the history of pragmatism? What are its ontological and ethical limitations?
  • What is a meaningful life? What is meaningful work?
  • How can work become more meaningful?


Frank Martela is a cross-disciplinary researcher with a PhD in both philosophy (University of Helsinki) and organisational research (Aalto University). He is a University lecturer at Aalto University and docent of well-being psychology at the University of Tampere and has spoken to hundreds of audiences worldwide, with lectures at Universities on four continents, including Stanford University and Harvard University. His steadily expanding research was published in numerous academic journals within psychology, philosophy and organisational design. As an expert in the meaning of life, Frank has been interviewed for the New York Times, Le Monde, Die Süddeutsche Zeitung and many others.

In addition to his academic work, Frank is also one of the co-founders and current chairman of the board of Filosofian Akatemia Oy, a company with expertise in measuring engagement, motivation and meaningfulness at work and consulting organisations on how to make work-life better. His most recent book is called “A Wonderful Life”.

Exploring the concepts for this session

Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. (Article by Ed Deci and Richard Ryan)

Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that – very broadly – understands knowing the world as inseparable from agency within it. This general idea has attracted a remarkably rich and at times contrary range of interpretations, including: that all philosophical concepts should be tested via scientific experimentation, that a claim is true if and only if it is useful (relatedly: if a philosophical theory does not contribute directly to social progress then it is not worth much), that experience consists in transacting with rather than representing nature, that articulate language rests on a deep bed of shared human practices that can never be fully ‘made explicit’.

In this article together with Frank Steger the existing literature is reviewed. Despite growing interest in meaning in life, many have voiced their concern over the conceptual refinement of the construct itself. Researchers seem to have two main ways to understand what meaning in life means: coherence and purpose, with a third way, significance, gaining increasing attention. Coherence means a sense of comprehensibility and one’s life making sense. Purpose means a sense of core goals, aims, and direction in life. Significance is about a sense of life’s inherent value and having a life worth living

This article deploys Alasdair MacIntyre’s Aristotelian virtue ethics, in which meaningfulness is understood to supervene on human functioning, to bring empirical and ethical accounts of meaningful work into dialogue. Whereas empirical accounts have presented the experience of meaningful work either in terms of agents’ orientation to work or as intrinsic to certain types of work, ethical accounts have largely assumed the latter formulation and subjected it to considerations of distributive justice. This article critiques both the empirical and ethical literatures from the standpoint of MacIntyre’s account of the relationship between the development of virtuous dispositions and participation in work that is productive of goods internal to practices. This reframing suggests new directions for empirical and ethical enquiries.

Research on meaningful work has proliferated in recent years, with an increasing understanding of the centrality of meaningfulness for work-related motivation, commitment, and well-being. However, ambiguity around the main construct, ‘meaningful work’, has hindered this progress as various researchers have used partly overlapping, partly differing conceptualizations. To bring clarity to this issue, we examine a broad range of various definitions of meaningful work and come to argue that meaningfulness in the broadest sense is about work significance as an overall evaluation of work as regards whether it is intrinsically valuable and worth doing. (Article with Anne Pessi)

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A Resource Kit to launch your explorations

Overview of Frank's research

Insights and blog about Franks' book on the wonderful life.

We argue that eudaimonia should not be understood as referring to any kind of subjective experience or ‘richer feeling of happiness’ but is rather about a good and valued way of living that can produce happiness, vitality and wellness as its byproducts. Furthermore, eudaimonia is especially found in those manners of living and pursuits that reflect our positive human nature. Based on self-determination theory, we then suggest a number of ways of living that we see as good candidates for an eudaimonic way of living: pursuing intrinsic goals, living autonomously, being mindful, and being benevolent

Pro‐social behaviors have been associated with enhanced well‐being, but what psychological mechanisms explain this connection? Some theories suggest that beneficence—the sense of being able to give—inherently improves well‐being, whereas evidence from self‐determination theory (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010) shows that increases in well‐being are mediated by satisfaction of innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Here we simultaneously assess these two explanations.

Building on John Dewey’s work, this article develops a position where the fallible nature of all knowledge is acknowledged and the value of science is anchored to its ability to resolve genuine human problems. It is argued that this kind of ontological experientialism and epistemological fallibilistic instrumentalism offers the most original and defensible version of pragmatism as a philosophy of science.

Following the relational turn in psychoanalytic theorizing, the systems metaphor has increasingly become a part of the therapeutic vocabulary. This has led to a view of therapy as an ongoing process in which the mutual interplay between the analyst and the patient cocreates a systemic higher level dimension that is based on bidirectional and jointly coordinated, simultaneous forms of interaction that influence the mental processes and regulatory patterns of both of the participants thus creating possibilities for creative therapeutic interventions.
Connections with others make up the fabric of daily life within organizations. Caregiving – understood broadly – takes place on a daily basis. Engagement in such caring situations has been found to be highly beneficial for both the caregiver and the cared-for. (...) Four different types of caring situations are found: 1) Instrumental caretaking, in which some need is taken care of without either person being engaged in the situation, 2) unmet call for caring, in which the cared-for reaches out to form a connection with the caregiver who remains emotionally detached from the situation, 3) one-sided caregiving, in which the caregiver engages with the cared-for in a warm and tender way but the recipient of care remains disengaged, and 4) caring connection, in which both participants engage emotionally with each other, thus allowing for the formation of a reciprocal, high-quality connection between them.

Re-enchantment taps well into the current zeitgeist: The rising focus on emotions and post-material values also in organizational context. Enchantment is deeply tied to socially generated emotions. Our aim is to develop the concept of copassion, referring to the process of responding to the positive emotion of a fellow human being. Concepts are crucial as they shape our understanding of the world. Our core claim is relating to our colleagues’ positive emotions not only enables and maintains but also fosters enchantment at work. In this article, by laying the ground by discussing enchantment and the theoretical framework of intersubjectivity, we will link copassion to the physiological and evolutionary basis of humans, as well as explore its conceptual neighbors. (written with Anne Birgitta Pessi, Anna Martta Seppänen, Jenni Spännäri, Henrietta Grönlund, Frank Martela, Miia Paakkanen)

The bureaucratic organizational structure has been recently challenged by a number of organizations that claim to offer employee emancipation and autonomy through self-management, self-organizing, or “holacracy.” To facilitate theorizing about such organizational-level self-management, I examine it as an ideal type of organizational form, comparing it to two more established organizational forms, Weberian bureaucracy and Mintzberg’s adhocracy.

Further essays and materials from other authors
This articles unfolds the core of Dewey’s philosophy of science which is his theory of inquiry—what he called “logic.” There is a major lacuna in the literature on this point, however: no contemporary philosophers of science have engaged with Dewey’s logical theory, and scholars of Dewey’s logic have rarely made connections with philosophy of science. This article aims to fill this gap, to correct some significant errors in the interpretation of key ideas in Dewey’s logical theory, and to show how Dewey’s logic provides resources for a philosophy of science.
Abductive inference presents to our sight one of the most inscrutable poker faces imaginable. Indeed, it has recently been referred to as "the fundamental problem of contemporary epistemology". As it is probably the darkest aspect of the already mysterious phenomenon of human intelligence, the precise nature of the abductive inference continues to elude many of our best efforts at under- standing it. After all, it is in this form of inference that the creative powers of the human intellect meet reality most directly and shape the world to its own purposes; and one suspects that the level of difficulty passed in understanding even our own finite creativity is not too far off from that of understanding the analogous act carried out by god at the beginning of time."
From 2013 until today, every time the World Happiness Report (WHR) has published its annual ranking of countries, the five Nordic countries–Finland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland–have all been in the top ten, with Nordic countries occupying the top three spots in 2017, 2018, and 2019. What exactly makes Nordic citizens so exceptionally satisfied with their lives? This is the question that this chapter aims to answer.
Research on meaningful work has not embraced a shared definition of what it is, in part because many researchers and laypersons agree that it means different things to different people. However, subjective and social accounts of meaningful work have limited practical value to help people pursue it and to help scholars study it. The account of meaningful work advanced in this paper is inherently normative. It recognizes the relevance of subjective experience and social agreement to appraisals of meaningfulness but considers them conceptually incomplete and practically limited. According to this normative account, meaningful work should be meaningful to oneself and to others and is also meaningful independent of them.
We discussed with Simon Western about the need for reenchantment of the world while Frank has written a paper on this topic. Plus both share a deep knowledge about care institutions.
In this article I critically discuss English-speaking philosophical literature addressing the question of what it essentially means to speak of “life’s meaning”. Instead of considering what might in fact confer meaning on life, I make two claims about the more abstract, meta-ethical question of how to understand what by definition is involved in making that sort of enquiry. One of my claims is that over the past five years there has been a noticeable trend among philosophers to try to change our understanding of what talk of “life’s meaning” connotes. For example, whereas most philosophers for a long while had held that such talk is about a kind of value possible in the life of human beings, recently some have argued that certain non-human parts of nature can exhibit meaningfulness, which, furthermore, is not necessarily something valuable. The second claim I advance is that there is strong reason to reject this trend, and instead for philosophers to retain the long-standing approach.
The meaning of work literature is the product of a long tradition of rich inquiry spanning many disciplines. Yet, the field lacks overarching structures that would facilitate greater integration, consistency, and understanding of this body of research. Current research has developed in ways that have created relatively independent domains of study that exist in silos organized around various sources of meaning and meaningfulness. In this paper, we review the meaning of work literature in order to propose new frameworks within which to classify existing work and to seed new work. Our review is organized by the major sources of the meaning of work on which extant research has focused, and by the mechanisms through which work is proposed to become meaningful.
OTHER This study began with the premise that people can use varying degrees of their selves. physically. cognitively. and emotionally. in work role performances. which has implications for both their work and experiences. Two qualitative. theory-generating studies of summer camp counselors and members of an architecture firm were conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage. or express and employ their personal selves. and disengage. or withdraw and defend their personal selves. This article describes and illustrates three psychological conditions-meaningfulness. safety. and availability- and their individual and contextual sources. These psychological conditions are linked to existing theoretical concepts. and directions for future research are described.

Selected published works

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Pragmatism and Morality
  • “Meliorism” is one key part of pragmatism. It comes from the Latin word ‘meliora’, which means better or getting better. If an optimist thinks the world is the best possible place, and a pessimist thinks the world is the worst possible place, a pragmatist says: it’s not the best, it’s not the worst, and at least there’s something we can do to improve it. So let’s focus on the parts of the world we are able to improve. That’s one key part.
  • Evolutionary theory is another important background for pragmatist philosophy, because evolution was quite a new thing in the late 19th century. Darwin had just written his books, and so forth. And then they started thinking that if human beings are the products of evolution, then our thinking also should be the product of evolution. And through that, they realised that thinking itself has probably developed for practical purposes, rather than being a thing removed from the world that is specialised in just contemplating for contemplation’s sake. Our ways of thinking have developed to serve practical purposes.
  • When we look at ethics and morality from a pragmatist’s point of view, we don’t have any fundamental truths that we can take for granted, from which we can start. But we have gained some more or less ‘warranted assertions’ through inquiry, through living. So, we have strong intuitions about certain things being morally wrong or right. (…) Moral philosophy quite often is about making our intuitions more systematic, trying to figure out what are the background laws behind this intuition, and so forth. This moral work that philosophers try to do is to sort out messy intuitions about morality into a more coherent system. And then, we can use this system to apply it to individual cases. When we are thinking about the individual case, i.e. whether is it more morally right or morally wrong to do this thing, then all the tools that this inquiry has created can help us to make sure that we take all issues into account when making our practical decisions about doing something or not doing something.
  • As regards progress, I would say that there might not be some universal notion of progress, but at least there are various sorts of local progress. (…) We can say that a moral system that more of humanity is ready to accept is better than a system that very few people are ready to accept. For example, the invention of human rights I would count as moral progress. And I call it invention because I don’t think that they were ready-made somewhere, waiting to be discovered. It was philosophical work through which we tried to figure out what are the moral things that people across cultures seem to be value. (…) So there are these local types of progress.
  • The easiest example is probably pain and suffering. You wouldn’t find many people who say that those are good things. Most people across the world would agree that causing pain to other people is morally bad unless there are some specific circumstances, but if there’s no specific reason for that, then causing pain is usually considered as bad. So that’s something that we can take as a universal moral truth. And it’s a universal moral truth because it’s part of human nature. Every human being wants to avoid suffering. By studying human nature and trying to figure out what the needs of human beings are, we can arrive at these conclusions about morality, that would be acceptable across the cultures.
The good life vs. the meaningful life
  • The good life is probably the broadest concept of life. It involves whatever makes a certain life better than another life, based on some individual perfect type, based on a shared perfect type.
  • Axiological values are things that are valuable by themselves. (…) When philosophers discuss these axiological values, happiness versus suffering is usually the most shared axiological value. Everybody agrees that that happiness is something people value. If I have to choose between two lives, one of them is full of suffering, and one is full of happiness, I’m gonna choose the one with more happiness. So that’s one way of evaluating the good and goodness of life. How much happiness and how much suffering there is.
  • The other axiological value that is often mentioned is morality. If I had to choose between two lives, one of them is morally good, and one morally bad, I might choose the morally good life, even if I know that there’s more suffering in that life. So morality seems to be another way of evaluating the goodness of life.
  • Meaningfulness has been argued to be a third way of evaluating the goodness of life. In some situations, people might choose to have lives that are high on meaningfulness instead of lives that are high on happiness. So living a life where you’re able to serve humanity, you know that your actions are mattering to other people, you’re able to do good things to other people, that might have some well-being consequences for you. But even beyond those well-being consequences, you might still feel that this meaningfulness is something that makes life valuable as such.
  • There is a distinction between a good life and a meaningful life. One could say that the good life includes all possible axiological values. And when we think about these axiological values, a few key values at least are happiness, morality, and meaning. So these three are often recognised as separate axiological values.
Self-Determination Theory and Broader Purpose
  • One way of thinking about purpose is that our lives become more meaningful if we have some goals for the future, which make my present actions, activities and choices somehow worth doing. So future-oriented goals are one aspect. But the other aspect is about contributing to other people. (…) That’s a different thing than just having a purpose or having a goal. So, the notion of “broader purpose” encloses both things, and we can make a distinction between a “purpose as such” and this “contribution as such”.
  • Self-determination theory is the idea that there are basic psychological needs, which are connected to our evolutionary nature, which stem from what it “means to be a human being”. When we think about these as needs, then they are subjective experiences, in a sense. (…) But at the same time, we can also look at them as values. In that sense, it is close to the idea of virtue ethics about identifying what is specific about human beings. The self-determination theory recognises three needs and I’d be looking at benevolence or contribution as a fourth need.
  • The sense of contribution, being able to do good things to other people, might be good for our own well-being - we might derive good feelings from doing it, but it seems to matter to us beyond the good feelings we get from it. I’m arguing for this ‘dual idea’ of needs. They function as needs, but at the same time we also value them as values as such, and disentangling those two aspects is quite hard sometimes.
  • Let’s say I’m a drug salesman, selling some drug for sickness, thinking that humankind may be better because I’m delivering this drug to people. Then after two years, I realise that the scientific research behind the drug was a fraud. It’s no better than a placebo. (…) In that situation, I wouldn’t say: “Oh, no worries, at least I got those two years of good feelings.” I do care. It is not just about the good feeling, but about making a contribution.
The Happy Society
  • In the World Happiness Report and other rankings, the Nordic countries tend to come out on top of the world every time it’s measured. (…) We investigated this with a couple of colleagues a few years ago. Our main argument is that it’s not about the culture, but it’s mostly about the institutions. The institution seems to be the key thing. So it’s not about the sauna, it’s not about heavy metal, it’s not about hygge, which is this Danish word for cosiness. But it’s more about what we have in the Nordic countries, well-functioning democracy, with relatively extensive welfare benefits, like unemployment benefits, free health care, maternity care, and so forth. (…) I think the state itself cannot produce so much happiness itself, but states can remove many forces of unhappiness.
  • This doesn’t mean that in Finland or other Nordic countries there will be more extremely happy people. If you walk the streets of Helsinki and look at the people, you wouldn’t think they are extremely happy. The Finnish people have a melancholic self-image and are not famous for displaying their emotions. But there are fewer extremely unhappy people in the Nordic countries. And that’s mainly due to these institutions.
  • One of the biggest happiness gaps, when I look at the data, is between Finland and Russia. The reason why Russia is one of the unhappiest places in Europe is exactly the same. All those things that speak for Nordic countries are lacking there. You know, functioning democracy, free speech, low corruption, and all of these things that are good in Nordic countries are lacking there. And because of that, people are much unhappier in Russia.
  • Eudaimonia is a very elusive concept. In psychology, when we measure well-being, the most common way of measuring it is subjective well-being. It includes: positive feelings, negative feelings, and general life satisfaction. (…) Eudaimonia is a concept that captures everything related to well-being, but is not captured by these three things. If you talk about mindfulness, autonomy, and meaning in life, these seem important to well-being, but they’re not part of ‘subjective well-being’. So I think Eudaimonia has developed into a catch-all category of everything connected to well-being which is not subjective well-being. And because of that, different measures of Eudaimonia might include very different things. That’s why they’re not comparable with each other and cannot build any cumulative science.
  • The Aristotelian root of Eudaimonia is usually more about a way of living. Because of that, we argue that one key part of Eudaimonia should be about our basic psychological needs. It’s about functioning well in life. So, if well-being is one part of human wellness, then well-doing is another part. We need to identify what experiences we require from our environment that contribute to this broader well-being. I think there’s not going to be one true measure of Eudaimonia in the future, but one key part that should be measured is these basic psychological needs.
  • We should probably get rid of the whole concept of Eudaimonia and instead have these more specifically defined (sub-)concepts. So, we might talk about subjective well-being, psychological needs, certain goals or optimism as important parts of well-being. They should be examined on their own merit, rather than competing for which of them is Eudaimonia, and which is not. I would argue that Eudaimonia as a concept is almost doing more harm than good.
What is good work?
  • As regards meaningful work, I will say that in its broadest sense, it is about those aspects of work that are valuable, that go beyond the monetary benefit we get from work. Of course, one reason to work is that you’ll get a salary, can pay the bills, put food on the table, and so forth. But at the same time, we do not only work for money. Most people find something else that is valuable in their work. They feel that through the work, they’re able to make the world a better place, help their clients, be part of a community, or they’re able to express themselves and do something they care about. That’s meaningfulness in the broadest sense. What makes work valuable as such, which is not about money. So that’s how I would define meaningful work.
  • Purpose has become a buzzword in the business community. (…) Sometimes purpose is defined more narrowly, just some goal in the future that sounds valuable. And sometimes it is this broader purpose which involves making the world a better place. When we talk about purpose in the business context, usually we are referring to the business doing something good for humanity. With regards to how purpose and meaningful work relate to each other, I would say that if an organisation has a high, well-defined and accepted purpose, that’s probably one key part of making work meaningful for the employees. (…) But there might be other things that make work meaningful for me, like the community or self-expression, and so on.
Enchanting organisations and emotions
  • With regards to organisations, emotions are not often acknowledged. One colleague of mine, who was doing workshops for organisations about emotions, always heard from some people that emotions don’t belong to the organisation, to our work-life. When you come to work, you have to forget about emotions. She always likes to reply that the emotions are already there, whether you acknowledge them or not. If there are human beings, there are going to be emotions, so you better learn how to deal with them rather than think that they don’t exist in the workplace. So that’s one starting point. Acknowledging that there is going to be this emotional layer.
  • People are going to have positive and negative emotions, whether you want it or not, but that’s going to be part of the organisation’s reality, part of the way people interact with each other. The emotional dimension is going to be there. And when you have an audience, then you can start doing more to manage that and think about, as a supervisor or leader, what can you do to support these moments (…) and caring connections.
Self-Managing Organisations (SMOs)
  • The opposite of self-management organisations are traditional bureaucratic organisation, which usually have rigid hierarchies. There’s one person at the top, and the top management team, defining what the objectives of the company are. Then they are delegating tasks to people below them. The big goal of the organisation, that the top management has decided, gets translated into more and more narrow tasks. (…) The individual members of the organisation are cogs in the machine, as Weber famously put it. Self-management organisations are the opposite of that in terms of hierarchy, because they tend to be organisations where hierarchical levels are almost absent. There might be top management, but there’s basically no middle management at all.
  • One key point to acknowledge about such organisations is that they’re not anarchic organisations. (…) There are two dimensions to organisations: one is this degree of hierarchy; the other is about how much structure there is in the organisation. If you have an organisation which is high on hierarchy and structures, that’s the classic bureaucratic organisation. (…) The opposite of that, low hierarchy and low structure is anarchy. And probably through anarchy, there’s no big task that can be accomplished. Because there’s not enough coherence or coordination between the individual activities to accomplish anything larger. (…) And then there is the organisation, which has a low hierarchy, but still has the structures. That’s a self-managing organisation. They usually have a quite clear structure and clear ways of doing things.
  • Reactor is a Finnish IT company that I’ve been studying carefully. It has circa 600 employees and no middle management at all, but autonomous teams. There’s a strong notion of the ‘Reactor way of doing things’. (…) There’s no explicit rule about that. No code book refers to how things are done at Reactor, but people have a certain view of how things are done there. And when somebody does something that doesn’t comply with this implicit image, they intervene.
  • One factor is how motivated and competent your employees are. You require e a highly motivated workforce that knows how to do their work. If people are not motivated, then by giving them high levels of autonomy without much oversight might lead to people not doing their work very well. It works better in places where people are professionals and have higher levels of education and commitment to their work. Nurses are a good example. A nurse usually already knows how to treat the patients and has a high motivation to make sure that they get better. So they don’t need so much oversight.
  • The other factor is how interdependent the various functions are. In the nursing example, one nursing team doesn’t have to know anything about what the other nursing team is doing. But in a car assembly company, what one team does affects the other team very much. So they need much more coordination with each other. So it’s easier to implement self-management in places where interdependencies are low.
System Intelligence
  • There are modes of therapy where we are not only treating a person by him/herself. If a teenager has problems, giving therapy only to the teenager might not be as helpful as taking the whole family in. Because it usually has something to do with the dynamics within the family. Treating only one member of the dynamic system is not as helpful as looking at its wholeness. That’s what systems intelligence is about. Realising these systems, of which we are part of, or contributing to systems through our ways of interacting. The first step to becoming more ‘system intelligent’ is to become aware of these systems, becoming aware that it’s not only about the other person, it’s not just about me, but it’s about how we two together create the system.

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diving deeper

Unleash your curiosity and discover new insights

✿ Good Life and Good Society

Further explorations about (the linkage between) reality (ontology), morality (ethics) and meaning of life

Dialogues of Plato


The Social Construction Of Reality

J.R. Searle

Beyond realism and antirealism: John Dewey and the neopragmatists

David L. Hildebrand

Escape From Freedom

Erich Fromm

The Morality Of Happiness

Julia Annas

Every weekend, in basements and parking lots across the country, young men with good white-collar jobs and absent fathers take off their shoes and shirts and fight each other barehanded for as long as they have to.

Chuck Palahniuk

The Power of Pragmatism: Knowledge Production and Social Inquiry

by Jane Wills (Author, Editor), Robert Lake (Author, Editor)

The meaning of life. A reader

by E.D. Klemke and Steven M. Cahn (Editor)

Man's Search For Meaning

by Viktor E. Frankl

Narcissus and goldmund is contrasting the careers of two friends, one of whom goes on the road, tangled in the extremes of life, the other staying in the monastery and struggling to lead a life of spiritual denial.

by Hermann Hesse

Meaning in Life and Why It Matters

by Susan Wolf

Meaning in Life

by Thaddeus Metz

The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales

by Bruno Bettelheim

The Myth Of Sisyphus: And Other Essays

by Albert Camus

On Life: A Critical Edition

by Leo Tolstoy

✿ Good Organisations

Further explorations about meaningful work

Systems Intelligence – A New Lens On Human Engagement And Action

Raimo P. Hämäläinen and Esa Saarinen

Meaningful Work

by Andrea Veltman

The Oxford Handbook of Meaningful Work

by Ruth Yeoman (Editor), Catherine Bailey (Editor), Adrian Madden (Editor), Marc Thompson (Editor)

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